A statistical insight to penalty shoot-outs in the FIFA World Cup tournaments

Oliver Robert Barnes, Kan-Thai Ling


Penalty shoot-outs are used to decide the outcome of some very important football matches in the past and present. Throughout the paper, statistics will be analysed from previous World Cup penalty shoot-outs and it will be determined if penalties are taken at random, or if a strategy can be implemented to statistically increase a team’s chance of winning a penalty shoot-out. This paper will investigate and attempt to justify implementing a definitive strategy.



Full Text:



"footballhistory.org," [Online]. Available: https://www.footballhistory.org/world-cup/index.html. [Accessed 30 march 2020].

[Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1930_FIFA_World_Cup. [Accessed 30 March 2020].

"bbcsport.co.uk," BBC, 28 June 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/football/44587232. [Accessed 30 March 2020].

"footballhistory.org," [Online]. Available: https://www.footballhistory.org/world-cup/1934-italy.html. [Accessed 30 March 2020].

talkSPORT, "talksport.com," 7 July 2018. [Online]. Available: https://talksport.com/football/395155/golden-goal-rule-world-cup-2018/. [Accessed 31 March 2020].

"planetworldcup.com," [Online]. Available: http://www.planetworldcup.com/STATS/stat_pens.html. [Accessed 1 April 2020].

f. technical, "football technical," 18 September 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.footballtechnicallab.com/the-myth-of-the-two-footed-footballer-part-1/. [Accessed 3 April 2020].

"faculty.washington.edu," [Online]. Available: https://faculty.washington.edu/heagerty/Books/Biostatistics/TABLES/ChiSquare/index.html. [Accessed 5 April 2020].


  • There are currently no refbacks.