Immigration and Incarceration in Post-Emancipation British Guiana

Estherine Adams, Shammane Joseph Jackson, Clare Anderson

Abstract


This paper focuses on the incarceration of East Indian indentured labourers in colonial British Guiana between 1838 and 1917. Presenting new data on the prison population and the expansion and strategic location of prison infrastructure, it argues that the criminalization of labour through contracts and ordinances led to the disproportionate incarceration of East Indian immigrants in earlier years. It also suggests this was undertaken so as to facilitate labour extraction from immigrants in response to the loss of access to free labour occasioned by the abolition of slavery.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Adams, E. (2010). ‘History of the Early Development of the Mazaruni Penal Settlement’, Stabroek News.

Adamson, A. (1972). Sugar Without Slaves: The Political Economy of British Guiana, 1838-1904. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Alves, J. et. al. (eds.) (1974). Mooneah v. William O. Agard, in A Collection of Cases Decided in the Court of Review of British Guiana from 1856 to 1873, Vol. 2. Demerara: W. B. Jamieson.

Anderson C., M. Ifill, E. Adams and K. Moss (2020), ‘Guyana’s Prisons: Colonial Histories of Post-Colonial Challenges’, The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice, 59, 3: 335-49.

British Library [BL], C.S.F.351, British Guiana, Inspector of Prisons Reports, 1889-1939.

Haley, S. (2016). No Mercy Here: Gender, Punishment, and the Making of Jim Crow Modernity. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Haraksingh, K. (1987). ‘Control and Resistance among Indian Workers: A Study of Labour on the Sugar Plantations of Trinidad 1875-1917’ in David Dabydeen and Brinsley Samaroo (eds). India in the Caribbean. London: Hansib/ University of Warwick, Centre for Caribbean Studies Publication.

Hay, D. and P. Craven, eds. (2004). Masters, Servants and Magistrates in Britain and the Empire, 1562-1955. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Lichtenstein, A. and Mancini, M. (1999). "One Dies, Get another: Convict Leasing in the American South, 1866-1928." The American Journal of Legal History 43, no. 1: 87.

Mangru, B. (1987) Benevolent Neutrality: Indian Government Policy and Labour Migration to British Guiana 1854-1884. London: Hansib.

McNeill-Lal Report (1915). Report on the Condition of Indian Immigrants in the Four British Colonies (Trinidad, British Guiana & Demerara Jamaica and Fiji), and in the Dutch Colony of Surinam or Dutch Guiana.

Mohapatra, P. (2004). ‘Assam and the West Indies, 1860-1920’ in Douglas Hay and Paul Craven (eds.), Masters, Servants and Magistrates in Britain and the Empire, 1562-1955. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Moss, K. Anderson, C., Ifill, M. and E. Adams (2019), ‘Guyana’s Prison System, 1814-1966’ https://leicester.figshare.com/articles/Historical_Overviews_of_Guyanas_Prisons_1814-1966/11591337 (accessed 15 April 2020).

Roberts, G. and Byrne, J. (1966). “Summary Statistics on Indenture and Associated Migration Affecting the West Indies 1838-1918,” Population Studies, Vol. 20 No. 1, 132.

Roopnarine, L. (2014) Resistance and Adaptation among Indentured Indian Labourers in British Guiana during Indentureship, in M.S. Hassankhan, B.V. Lal and D. Munro (eds) Resistance and Indian Indenture Experience, comparative Perspectives, New Delhi: Manohar Publishers: 157-82.

Williams, E. (1962), History of the people of Trinidad and Tobago. Port-of-Spain: P.N.M. Publication.

TNA [The National Archives]:

- CO 116/150 Annual Return of the Gaols and Houses of Correction, 1831.

- CO 116/203 Annual Return of the Gaols and Houses of Correction, 1834.

- CO 116/207 Annual Return of the Gaols and Houses of Correction, 1838.

- CO 116/210 Annual Returns of the Gaols and Houses of Correction,1839.

- CO 111/362 Annual Report of the Inspector of Prisons, 1868.

- CO113/2/20: An ordinance to provide general regulations for immigrants introduced into the colony of British Guiana, 1850.

NAG [National Archives, Guyana]:

- AB 1/421 Minutes of the Proceedings of the Court of Policy, 1860.

- AB 1/412 Minutes of the Proceedings of the Court of Policy, 1841.

- AF 3/2 Blue Books of Statistics: British Guiana, 1860-1861.

- AF 3/22 Blue Books of Statistics: British Guiana, 1880-1881.

- AF 3/23 Blue Books of Statistics: British Guiana, 1881-1882.

- AF 3/36 Blue Books of Statistics: British Guiana, 1890-1891.

- AF 3/45 Blue Books of Statistics: British Guiana, 1900-1901.

- AF 3/46 Blue Books of Statistics: British Guiana, 1901-1902.

- AF 3/55 Blue Books of Statistics: British Guiana, 1910.

- AF 3/63 Blue Books of Statistics: British Guiana, 1917.

- AF 3/66 Blue Books of Statistics: British Guiana, 1920.

- AF 3/73 Blue Books of Statistics: British Guiana, 1927.

UK House of Commons Parliamentary Papers [PP]:

- 1830-31 [334] Gaols, West Indies. Copies of Correspondence relative to the State of the Gaols in the West Indies and the British Colonies in South America; and also, of any instructions which have been sent out from the Colonial Office relative to such Prisons, 30.

- 1871 [393] Report of the commissioners appointed to enquire into the treatment of immigrants in British Guiana (London: Clowes and Son, 1871), Appendix G: Case of Three Immigrants, indentured to Plantation Good Success, Wakenaam. Complaint of ill-usage by the Manager, Mr. Finlay Matheson, 15 December 1869.

- 1875 [1338]a Papers Relating to the Improvement of Prison Discipline in the Colonies (London, Harrison and Sons, 1875).Governor Longden, to the Earl of Carnarvon, September 22, 1874.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.29311/lwps.202143751

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Estherine Adams, Shammane Joseph Jackson, Clare Anderson

We use both functional and performance cookies to improve visitor experience. Continue browsing if you are happy to accept cookies. Please see our Privacy Policy for more information.
OK